samedi 19 septembre 2015

Nivo H. Rakotoarivelo Medicinal plants used to treat the most frequent diseases encountered in Ambalabe rural community, Eastern Madagascar // Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine n° 11


Traditional medicine remains the primary healthcare system in Ambalabe community. Many plant species are used as remedies for multiple ailments. Unfortunately, the use of medicinal plants in Ambalabe community is still not well documented. Based on literature, no previous in depth studies were conducted in this area. This present study was undertaken with the hope of obtaining more detailed information on how medicinal plants in Ambalabe are used, which largely contributed to prevent the loss of knowledge due to ongoing forest destruction.
Our research indicates that the local population retains an important knowledge about medicinal plants used to treat the most frequent diseases. Our first hypothesis was therefore supported. The results also support our second hypothesis, i.e. that many species used for medicinal purposes might be threatened, especially because we could verify that most were not growing in established protected areas.
To conclude, this paper provides new information on medicinal plants used by the local population in Ambalabe community to fight against frequent diseases. Some species seemed new to sciences or sometimes have new uses never recorded. Further pharmacological studies will be needed to better understand the importance of traditional medicine. Besides, because 83 species were used to treat six most frequent diseases, their conservation should be considered as important to ensure sustainable future use, especially due to the fact that most of them were collected in the surroundings of the villages and in non-protected areas. Sustainable management techniques should be considered, especially for Malagasy endangered species.


  1. Seifu T. Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmaceutical studies on medicinal plants of Chifra district, Afar region, North Eastern Ethiopia. PhD Thesis. School of Graduate Studies, Addis Ababa University; 2004. OpenURL
  2. Health of indigenous peoples. Factsheets N° 326, Geneva, Switzerland; 2007. http://www. Accessed 30 April 2015 OpenURL
  3. Bussmann RW, Sharon D. Traditional medicine plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2006; 2:47. PubMed Abstract | BioMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  4. Bussmann RW, Glenn A. Peruvian medicinal plants for the treatment of liver and gallbladder ailments. Arnaldoa. 2010; 17(2):243-53. OpenURL
  5. Bussmann RW, Glenn A. Plants used for the treatment of gastro-intestinal ailments in Northern Peruvian ethnomedicine. Arnaldoa. 2010; 17(2):255-70. OpenURL
  6. Randrianarivelojosia M, Rasidimanana VT, Rabarison H, Cheplogoi PK, Ratsimbason M, Mulholland DA, et al. Plants traditionally prescribed to treat tazo (malaria) in the eastern region of Madagascar. Malar J. 2003;2:25.
  7. Rabearivony DA, Kuhlman AR, Razafiarison ZL, Raharimalala F, Rakotoarivony F, Randrianarivony T, et al. Ethnobotanical study of the medicinal plants known by men in Ambalabe, Madagascar. Ethnobotany Research & Applications. 2015;14:123–38.
  8. Razafindraibe M, Kuhlman AR, Rabarison H, Rakotoarimanana V, Rajeriarison C, Rakotoarivelo N, et al. Medicinal plants used by women from Agnalazaha littoral forest (Southeastern Madagascar). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013;9:73.
  9. Assessing the impacts of climate change on Madagascar’s biodiversity and livelihoods - A workshop report. MEEFT, Antananarivo; 2008. OpenURL
  10. Green GM, Sussman RW. Deforestation history of the eastern rainforests of Madagascar from satellite images. Science. 1990; 248(4952):212-5. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  11. Busch J, Dave R, Hannah L, Cameron A, Rasolohery A, Roehrdanz P, et al. Climate change and the cost of conserving species in Madagascar. Conserv Biol. 2012;26(3):408–19.
  12. Aubert S, Razafiarison S, Bertrand A. Déforestation et systèmes agraires à Madagascar : Les dynamiques des tavy sur la côte orientale. CIRAD, Montpellier; 2003. OpenURL
  13. Gómez-Baggethun E, Mingorría S, Reyes-García V, Calvet L, Montes C. Traditional ecological knowledge trends in the transition to a market economy: empirical study in the Doñana Natural Areas. Conserv Biol. 2010; 24(3):721-9. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  14. Reyes-García V, Guèzeb M, Luz AC, Paneque-Gálvez J, Macía MJ, Orta-Martínez M, et al. Evidence of traditional knowledge loss among a contemporary indigenous society. Evol Hum Behav. 2013;34(4):249–57.
  15. Oliver SJ. The role of traditional medicine practice in primary health care within Aboriginal Australia: a review of the literature. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013; 9:46. PubMed Abstract | BioMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  16. Badiaga M. Etude ethnobotanique, phytochimique et activités biologiques de Nauclea latifolia Smith une plante médicinale africaine récoltée au Mali. PhD Thesis. Faculté des Sciences et Techniques (FAST), University of Bamako; 2011. OpenURL
  17. Rakotoarivelo N, Razanatsima A, Rakotoarivony F, Rasoaviety L, Ramarosandratana AV, Jeannoda V, et al. Ethnobotanical and economic value of Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn. in Eastern Madagascar. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014;10:57.
  18. Cornet A. Essai cartographique bioclimatique à Madagascar, carte à 1/2 000 000 et notice explicative N° 55. ORSTOM, Paris; 1974. OpenURL
  19. Quansah N. Ethnomedicine in the Maroantsetra region of Madagascar. Econ Bot. 1988; 42(3):370-5. Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  20. Styger E, Rakotondramasy HM, Pfeffer MJ, Fernandes ECM, Bates DM. Influence of slash-and-burn farming practices on fallow succession and land degradation in the rainforest region of Madagascar. Agric Ecosyst Environ. 2007; 119:257-69. Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  21. Ravololonanahary H, Rajaspera B. Corridor Ankeniheny-Zahamena : un joyau de l’Ala Atsinanana. In: Songadina n°1. Bulletin trimestriel, Madagascar; 2009: p.1. OpenURL
  22. Madagascar Catalogue. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, U.S.A. & Antananarivo, Madagascar. 2013. Accessed 9 Jan 2015.
  23. Tropicos. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, U.S.A. 2014. Accessed Dec 2014.
  24. Alexiades MN, Sheldon JW. Selected Guidelines for Ethnobotanical Research: A Field Manual. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, N.Y., U.S.A; 1996. OpenURL
  25. Nagoya protocol on access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization to the convention on biological diversity. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, United Nations, Montreal, Canada; 2011. OpenURL
  26. Martin GJ. Ethnobotany: A Methods Manual. Chapman and Hall, London; 1995. OpenURL
  27. Cámara-Leret R, Paniagua-Zambrana N, Macía MJ. A standard protocol for gathering palm ethnobotanical data and socioeconomic variables across the Tropics. In: Medicinal plants and the legacy of Richard E. Schultes. Proceedings of the Botany 2011 Richard E Schultes Symposium. Ponman B, Bussmann RW, editors. Trujillo, Graficart; 2012: p.41-71. OpenURL
  28. Borgatti SP. AnthroPac methods guide. Analytic Technologies, Columbia, SC; 1992. OpenURL
  29. Winch PJ, Wagman JA, Malouin RA, Mehl GL. Recherche qualitative pour des programmes de santé améliorés: Guide aux manuels traitant de la recherche participative en matière de santé de l’enfant, de nutrition et de santé reproductive. USAID, Division du Développement Durable, Afrique; 2001. OpenURL
  30. Quinlan M. Considerations for collecting freelists in the field: examples from ethnobotany. Field Methods. 2005; 17(3):1-16. Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  31. Borgatti SP, Halgin DS. Elicitation techniques for cultural domain analysis. Ethnographer’s Toolkit. Schensul J, LeCompte M, editors. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek; 1999. OpenURL
  32. Friedman J, Yaniv Z, Dafni A, Palewitch D. A preliminary classification of the healing potential of medicinal plants, based on a rational analysis of an ethnopharmacological field survey among Bedouins in the Negev Desert, Israel. J Ethnopharmacol. 1986; 16:275-87. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  33. Hoffman B, Gallaher T. Importance indices in Ethnobotany. Ethnobotany Research & Applications. 2007; 5:201-18. OpenURL
  34. Medeiros MFT, Silva PS, Albuquerque UP. Quantification in ethnobotanical research: an overview of indices used from 1995 to 2009. Sitientibus série Ciências Biológicas. 2011; 11(2):211-30. Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  35. Andriamparany JN, Brinkmann K, Jeannoda V, Buerkert A. Effects of socio-economic household characteristics on traditional knowledge and usage of wild yams and medicinal plants in the Mahafaly region of south-western Madagascar. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014; 10:82. PubMed Abstract | BioMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  36. Laloo D, Hemalatha S. Ethnomedicinal plants used for diarrhea by tribals of Meghalaya Northeast India. Pharmacognosy Review. 2011; 5(10):147-54. Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  37. Gairola S, Sharma J, Gaur RD, Siddiqi TO, Painuli RM. Plants used for treatment of dysentery and diarroea by the Bhoxa community of district Dehradun, Uttarakhand India. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 150(3):989-1006. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  38. Nicolas J-P. Plantes médicinales du Nord de Madagascar – Ethnobotanique Antakarana et informations scientifiques. Jardins du Monde, Madagascar; 2012. OpenURL
  39. Rakotonandrasana SR. Les plantes médicinales de l’aire protégée de Zahamena (Madagascar) et de ses environs : richesse floristique et endémicité. In: Beau N, Dessein S, Robbrecht E, editors. African Plant Diversity: Systematics and Sustainable Development. Proceedings of the XIXth AETFAT Congress 2010. Madagascar: Scripta Botanica Belgica; 2013;50:356-62.
  40. Gaikwad J, Wilson K, Kohen J, Vemulpad S, Jamie J, Ranganathan S. Combining ethnobotany and informatics to discover knowledge from data. In: Ethnomedicinal Plants: Revitalization of traditional knowledge of herbs. Rai MK, Acharya D, Rios JL, editors. Science Publishers, New Hampshire; 2010: p.444-57. OpenURL
  41. Chavan V, Watve AV, Londhe MS, Rane NS, Pandit AT, Krishnan S. Cataloguing Indian biota: The electronic catalogue of known Indian fauna. Curr Sci. 2004; 87:749-63. OpenURL
  42. Joshi M, Kumar M, Bussmann RW. Ethnomedicinal uses of plant resources of the Haigad watershed in Kumaun Himalaya, India. Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology. 2010; 4(1):43-6. OpenURL
  43. Johnsy G, Beena S, Kaviyarasan V. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. Int J Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2013; 3(1):332-8. OpenURL
  44. Das PR, Akter S, Md. Islam T, Kabir MH, Md. Haque M, Khatun Z, Md. Nurunnabi, Khatun Z, Lee Y, Jahan R, Rahmatullah M. A selection of medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea by folk medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh. American-Eurasian J Sustainable Agriculture. 2012, 6(3):153–161
  45. Ngarivhume T, van’t Klooster CIEA, de Jong JTVM, Van der Westhuizen JH. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers for the treatment of malaria in the Chipinge district in Zimbabwe. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015; 159:224-37. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  46. Maroyi A. Traditional use of medicinal plants in south-central Zimbabwe: review and perspectives. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2013; 9:31. PubMed Abstract | BioMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  47. Betti JL, Yongo OD, Obiang Mbomio D, Midoko Iponga D, Ngoye A. An ethnobotanical and floristical study of medicinal plants among the Baka pygmies in the periphery of the Ipassa-Biosphere Reserve Gabon. Eur J Medicinal Plants. 2013; 3(2):174-205. Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  48. Wagh VV, Jain AK, Kadel C. Ethnomedicinal plants used for curing dysentery and diarrhoea by tribals of Jhabua district (Madhya Pradesh). Indian J Nat Products and Resources. 2011; 2(2):256-60. OpenURL
  49. Punjani BL, Kumar V. Traditional medicinal plant remedies to treat cough and asthmatic disorders in the Aravalli ranges in North Gujarat India. J Nat Remedies. 2002; 2(2):173-8. OpenURL
  50. Andrade-Cetto A. Ethnobotanical study of the medicinal plants from Tlanchinol, Hidalgo, México. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009; 122:163-71. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL
  51. Bahekar S, Kale R. Herbal plants used for the treatment of malaria – A literature review. J Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2013; 1(6):141-6. OpenURL
  52. Albuquerque UP, Medeiros PM, Almeida ALS, Monteiro JM, Freitas Lins Neto EM, Melo JG, et al. Medicinal plants of the caatinga (semi-arid) vegetation of NE Brazil: A quantitative approach. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;114:325–54.
  53. Gangte HE, Zomi GT, Thoudam NS. Ethnomedicinal plants used in diarrhoea and dysentery by the Zou tribe in Churachandpur district, Manipur, India. Asian J Experimental Biological Sciences. 2013; 4(3):369-76. OpenURL
  54. Kidane B, van Andel T, van der Maesen LJG, Asfaw Z. Use and management of traditional medicinal plants by Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2014; 10:46. PubMed Abstract | BioMed Central Full Text OpenURL
  55. Kar A, Borthakur SK. Medicinal plants used against dysentery, diarrhoea and cholera by the tribes of erstwhile Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh. Natural Product Radiance. 2008; 7(2):176-81. OpenURL
  56. Shanmugam S, Annadurai M, Rajendran K. Ethnomedicinal plants used to cure diarrhoea and dysentery in Pachalur hills of Dindigul district in Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2011; 1(8):94-7. OpenURL
  57. Tangjitman K, Wongsawad C, Kamwong K, Sukkho T, Trisonthi C. Ethnomedicinal plants used for digestive system disorders by the Karen of northern Thailand. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2015; 11:27. PubMed Abstract | BioMed Central Full Text OpenURL

Aucun commentaire: